Hydration of cement is an exothermic action which produces large quantity of heat.Crack formation in large body of concrete due to heat of hydration has  focussed the attention of the concrete technologists to produce a kind of cement which produces less heat or the same amount of heat, at a low rate during the hydration process. Cement having this property was developed in U.S.A. during 1930 for use in mass concrete construction, such as dams, where temperature rise by the heat of hydration can become excessively large. A low-heat evolution is achieved by reducing the contents of C3S and C3A which are the compounds evolving the maximum heat of hydration and increasing C2S. Chemical action of hardening will be be reduced by reduction of temperature, which will further restrict the rate of evolution of heat. The rate of evolution of heat will, therefore, be less and evolution of heat will extend over a longer period. Therefore, the feature of low-heat cement is a slow rate of gain of strength. But the ultimate strength of low-heat cement is the same as that of ordinary Portland cement. As per the Indian Standard Specification the heat of hydration of low-heat Portland cement shall be as follows:
      7 days — not more than 65 calories per gm. 
      28 days — not more than 75 calories per gm.

Concrte Dams

The specific surface of low heat cement as found out by air-permeability method is not less than 3200 sq. cm/gm. The 7 days strength of low heat cement is not less than 16 MPa in contrast to 22 MPa in the case of ordinary Portland cement. Other properties, such as setting time and soundness are same as that of ordinary Portland cement.

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