The AISC specification for allowable stresses for buildings specifies allowable unit tension and shear stresses on the cross-sectional area on the unthreaded body area of bolts and threaded parts. (Generally, rivets should not be used in direct tension.) When wind or seismic load are combined with gravity loads, the allowable stresses may be increased one-third.

Most building construction is done with bearing-type connections. Allowable bearing stresses apply to both bearing-type and slip-critical connections. In buildings, the allowable bearing stress F p , ksi (MPa), on projected area of fasteners is

F p = 1.2 F

where F ­u is the tensile strength of the connected part, ksi (MPa). Distance measured in the line of force to the nearest edge of the connected part (end distance) should be at least 1.5d, where d is the fastener diameter. The center-to-center spacing of fasteners should be at least 3d.

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