The soil properties and parameters can be broadly classified as

1)Physical

2)Engineering

3)Index

Physical soil properties include density, particle size and distribution, specific gravity, and water content.

The water content w of a soil sample represents the weight of free water contained in the sample expressed as a percentage of its dry weight.

The degree of saturation S of the sample is the ratio, expressed as percentage, of the volume of free water contained in a sample to its total volume of voids V_{v}

Porosity n, which is a measure of the relative amount of voids, is the ratio of void volume to the total volume V of soil:

n=V_{v}/V

The ratio of V_{v} to the volume occupied by the soil particles V_{s} defines the void ratio e. Using this e we can calculate the degee of saturation by

S=wG_{s}/e

where G_{s} represents the specific gravity of the soil particles. For most inorganic soils, G_{s} is usually in the range of (2.67+ or -0.05.)

The dry unit weight ?_{d} of a soil specimen with any degree of saturation may be calculated from

?_{d}=?_{w}G_{s}S/(1+wG_{s})

where w =unit weight of water and is usually taken as 62.4 lb/ft^{3} (1001 kg/m^{3} ) for freshwater and 64.0 lb/ft^{3}

(1026.7 kg/m^{3} ) for seawater.